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Out of four sampled states, Kerala, an educationally progressive state, has the highest percentage of students going for private tuition at secondary level (55%), followed by Maharashtra (49.35%), which is both industrially and educationally developed.In Andhra Pradesh, the percentage of students taking private tuition is the lowest (32.26%), while Uttar Pradesh (46.67%) is just behind Maharashtra.
Slow industrialization and high unemployment among secondary graduates in the state has probably also led to high pressure at higher-secondary level.
The social obsession for higher education in Kerala also makes parents put pressure on children to perform better at all levels of education providing private-tuition support.
The third section examines the intensity and source of private tuition.
The final part discusses reasons for private tuition followed by some issues and policy implications.
Since the results of public examination in Grade X determines admission into higher secondary as well as choice of subjects and streams, a higher percentage of students in Grade X obviously prefer to go for private tutoring compared to Grade IX.
Table 1: Students receiving tuition in different classes (%) Among the four sampled states, in Kerala a high majority of students seek private tuition (71.58%) in Grade X; the lowest percentage is found in Andhra Pradesh (52.7%).
The extent of private tutoring is significantly higher in Grade X compared in Grade IX.
The average percentage of students seeking private tuition is 58.8% as against 32% in Grade IX.
The data with regard to private tuition was collected from a random sample of 4,031 students studying in Grade IX–X in 49 schools from Thiruvananthpuram, Pune, Nalgonda and Varanasi districts in four states: Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pardesh, and Uttar Pradesh respectively.
The schools chosen represent rural and urban locations; exclusive girls, boys and mixed schools; different management types; and good and poor performance in public examinations.