Any opinions are those of the author and not necessarily those of IAHPC Copyright © 2019 Roger Woodruff © All rights reserved.
Any opinions are those of the author and not necessarily those of IAHPC Copyright © 2019 Roger Woodruff © All rights reserved.Tags: Science And Society EssayInterview Essay FormatComputer Effects On The Academic Performance Of Students Review Of Related LiteratureTransistion Words For EssaysCharles Darwin Theory Of Evolution Research PaperArgumentative Essay For AbortionGender Differences In Crime EssaysPtlls Level 3 CourseworkShort Essay Drawing
In about 1990, formalized guidelines for the practice of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide were issued (Walton, 1995).
These were: In 2002, the practices became legally regulated with the passage of the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act by the Dutch Parliament (see Parliament of the Netherlands).
‘The 1960s and 1970s were a watershed for Dutch society.
From a conservative, tradition-bound country, the Netherlands transformed itself into a hotbed of social and cultural experimentation’ (Weyers, 2012).
In chronological order, these are The Netherlands, the Northern Territory of Australia, Oregon (USA), Belgium, and Canada.
Legal change was not required to allow assisted suicide in Switzerland.If it is performed at the dying person's request, it is voluntary; otherwise, it is non-voluntary.The terms ‘active’ and ‘passive’ may be misleading (Walton, 1995).It is similarly a deliberate act with the express intention of ending life and is not ethically or morally distinguishable from euthanasia.The performance of assisted suicide by persons other than physicians, as occurs in Switzerland, is ethically and morally equivalent to PAS.IAHPC prohibits the commercial use or reproduction and distribution of this material without authorization.Published by IAHPC Press 5535 Memorial Drive, Suite F- 509, Houston TX, 77007, USA Euthanasia is ‘a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life so as to relieve intractable suffering’ (House of Lords, 1994; Walton, 1995).The ‘slippery slope’ is the gradual extension of assisted suicide to widening groups of patients after it is legally permitted for patients designated as terminally ill (Hendin, 1997a).Manifestations include Henk Jochemsen (Director, Lindeboom Institute for Medical Ethics, the Netherlands): ‘The Dutch experience shows that once the termination of patients’ lives is practised and that practice wins official toleration or approval, the practice develops a dynamic of its own that resists effective control.’ (Jochemsen, 1994) Herbert Hendin (Medical Director of Suicide Prevention Initiatives (SPI) and Professor of Psychiatry at New York Medical College): ‘Virtually every guideline set up by the Dutch—a voluntary, well considered, persistent request; intolerable suffering that cannot be relieved; consultation; and reporting of cases—has failed to protect patients or has been modified or violated.’ (Hendin, 2002) José Pereira (Head of Palliative Care at the University of Ottawa): ‘Abuse of guidelines has occurred in every jurisdiction around the world where assisted dying has been legalized.’ (Pereira, 2011) A range of euphemisms have been developed to avoid the terms euthanasia and PAS, particularly the stigma of the word ‘suicide’.The figures are also available from The Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) website (see KNMG).Reports for 20 are available (see Regional Euthanasia Review Committees. The figures in Table 2 are calculated from the Dutch data.