John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding + Notes

Finally Locke turns his attention to the related concept of reason, which he defines as the ability to discover truths and establish connections among them.As with knowledge itself, Locke argues that people are generally too optimistic about what human reason can achieve.

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Abstract relationships, like cause and effect or sameness and difference, likewise come from the mind's reflection on its simple ideas.

This process of assembly, Locke argues, explains why people sometimes yoke together seemingly unrelated ideas.

opens with two letters, the first of which is to the book's dedicatee, Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, a leading English politician of his day.

The second addresses the reader directly, and offers a defense of the book and its arguments from various perspectives.

He argues that there are no ideas in the human mind—none that people bring into the world at birth.

Instead, he says, the mind is initially a blank slate, and ideas are imprinted on it only through experience.This, as Locke is well aware, flies in the face of the grand claims that are often made about the potential of the human mind.Locke's seeming pessimism about human knowledge comes in part from the strictness with which he uses the word "knowledge." For Locke, knowledge implies both total certainty and the ability to establish something beyond a doubt.Locke concludes the with an investigation of the nature of knowledge, which he defines as an awareness of the relationships among ideas.He maintains that human knowledge is extremely limited, and that many things called "knowledge" are really belief or conjecture.Locke is unconvinced by the idea that names reflect the true essence of things.Instead, he asserts, words reflect people's attempts to group things together based on their similar traits.It first appeared in 1689 (although dated 1690) with the printed title An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding.He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate (tabula rasa, although he did not use those actual words) filled later through experience.Locke next discusses the relationship between language and experience. Carefulness with language is essential, Locke maintains, because an idea can be inaccurately communicated to others even if it is clear to the individual.The opposite sometimes happens as well, especially in religious and philosophical debates: people use a word without having a clear and distinct idea of what it means.

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