This award remains the highest form of recognition that a Japanese company can obtain.In 1954 Juran arrived in Japan and began to teach his own ideas on quality.Boaden (1997) discusses the difficulty of trying to define TQM but acknowledges the importance in attempting to do so because TQM as a subject is now being taught in learning institutions.
Along with Feigenbaum, who published his book ‘Total Quality Control’ The quality movement was beginning to gain momentum.
(Mc Kenna, 1995) But it wasn’t until 1980 when the NBC produced a documentary titled, If Japan Can, Why Can’t We? Osborn, 1990) Forms of quality management emerged during the 80’s in many manufacturing and service-sector companies, followed in the 90’s by public and welfare based organisations. Today there are many awards associated with quality.
An employee, through being continuously engaged is in an ideal position to make an active contribution to continuous improvement. The development of Total Quality Management At the conclusion of World War II American business enjoyed a dominant position within the global market. Petersen, 1999) Demand for consumer products had intensified.
During this period American companies shifted their focus from yield and quality to other factors such as finance, marketing and restructuring the organisation.
In a survey given to 770 companies Mann & Kehoe (1994) published results that further quantified positive results of TQM implementation.
Areas of improvement included supplier relationship, process, policy deployment and customer relationship.Order books were full, and quality was of little importance while there were orders to fill. It was at this time during the American occupation that Deming arrived in Japan.During this time he became acquainted with members of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers.TQM enables organisations to obtain a high degree of differentiation and to reduce costs.In an article contained within the TQM magazine, Popplewell and Aghaie (1997) cite the British Standards Institute definition.The main reasons for failure were uncertain implementation processes, waning enthusiasm for the concept, deficient levels of empowerment on all levels, ineffective communication strategies through lack of planning and newly formed teams failing to act in a co-ordinated fashion.Noronha (2003) cites failure can be linked to a culture clash where TQM processes imported from other countries do not marry well with local society. Although all of these reasons are contributing factors in the potential shortcomings of successful TQM implementation, the overwhelming theme discovered through research points to the role that senior management plays in the failure of TQM.Feigenbaum views TQC as an efficient method ensuring quality in areas of development and maintenance.Improvement is combined to promote positive economic performance while still offering satisfaction to the customer.Rad (2006) places the emphasis on the senior manager stating that they are required to ensure compliance to TQM principles and values in all parts of their organisation.These include organisational structure, education, communication, process, procedure and compensation strategies.