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This doesn’t mean that you don’t use any other punctuation after that period.Use all of the regular punctuation that you would if that “etc.” were just another word – question marks, exclamation points, semi-solons or colons.
In the 4th example, note also that there was a dash before the list, rather than a term like “such as.” If you use “such as,” you do not need to use “etc.” because the meaning is already clear. So, you can say, “The courses covered all of the major forms of government, including democracy, fascism, communism, monarchy, etc.,” or you can say, “The course covered all of the major forms of government, including democracy, fascism, communism, monarchy, and others.” This rule is quite simple.
While using several “etc.’s” in speaking or in informal writing is often used for emphasis, using etc. You can say to a friend, “I have to get to the grocery store, a doctor’s appointment and my haircut appointment, write my essays before the deadline runs out, etc., etc., etc., before I can get back to home and start cleaning,” is common informal language. If you use “etc.” in the middle of a sentence, and it is not enclosed in parentheses, then you must use a comma after the abbreviation.
at the end of a sentence and, as well, how do you use etc. Note that all of the items in the lists are related. You don’t need a period if you spell it out, but be sure your spelling is correct.
Excetera, etcetra, and exedra are common mis-spellings, so get it right. Either name them all or come up with some other term, like, “We studied all of the most famous authors in our English literature course.” The word “and” already implies what “etc.” means, and using it is just redundant.
The use of sic indicates the error is not the writer’s, but from the original text: Dr.
Casey says of his research, “I strongly believe that animal-to-human tansplantation [sic] is widely underutilized in the US.” Sic immediately follows the misspelled word above.When quoting sources, it’s actually not uncommon to find an error in the original material.However, the writer cannot simply correct the error, but must transcribe it exactly as is with the error, inserting the word “sic,” a Latin term meaning “thus” or “so,” enclosed in square brackets.When writing in academic situations, however, be sure and follow the guidelines for the citation style you are using, be it MLA, APA, AP, Chicago, or others.Each style has its own preferences, but some make no determination of how each kind of punctuation should be used.Parenthetical information can be removed without altering the meaning of a sentence or paragraph.Parentheses are used in many situations: Definition: Brackets [ ] separate and enclose information.Generally, braces, brackets, and parenthesis are used to set off additional or optional information in sentences.The writer may need to add words to clarify meaning, make the sentence read more clearly, or make a comment or correction to quoted material.In that case, use whichever works best for your situation.You probably know it better as “etc.” you have read things that have used it; you have probably said it yourself.