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These constructions can be regarded as a weak form of currying based on data concatenation rather than function composition.If the language provides a mechanism of futures or promises, then short-circuit evaluation can sometimes also be simulated in the context of a binary map operation.
In this usage it appears as an expression on the right side of an assignment statement, as follows: The ?
: operator is similar to the way conditional expressions (if-then-else constructs) work in functional programming languages, like Scheme, ML, and Haskell, since if-then-else forms an expression instead of a statement in those languages.
Note that neither the true nor false portions can be omitted from the conditional operator without an error report upon parsing.
This contrasts with if-then-else statements, where the else clause can be omitted.
Logical comparison operators are used in conjuction with relational and equality operators as described in the relational operators section and equality and inequality operators section.
They provide a means to perform multiple comparisons within a a single expression. The operand before the operator contains data to be shifted and the operand after the operator contains the number of single bit shift operations to be performed.
In R—and other languages with literal expression tuples—one can simulate the ternary operator with something like the R expression (this idiom is slightly more natural in languages with 0-origin subscripts).
However, in this idiom it is almost certain that the entire tuple expression will evaluate prior to the subscript expression, so there will be no short-circuit semantics.
A top level distinction from one language to another is whether the expressions permit side effects (as in most procedural languages) and whether the language provides short-circuit evaluation semantics, whereby only the selected expression is evaluated (most standard operators in most languages evaluate all arguments).
If the language supports expressions with side effects but does not specify short-circuit evaluation, then a further distinction exists about which expression evaluates first—if the language guarantees any specific order (bear in mind that the conditional also counts as an expression).